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Diabetic retinopathy

The retinopathy in diabetic patients is caused by diabetic microangiopathy and it results in blindness. A proliferative and a nonproliferative form can be distinguished.

Epidemiology

Diabetic retinopathy is the most common cause for blindness in industrialized countries. About 10% of patients with insulin dependent diabetes type 2 develop retinopathy.

Test Strategy

The determination of risk of complications is useful at the beginning of a disease process when strategy of diagnotic and therapy has to be scheduled.

Clinical Findings

It was demonstrated that the better is diabetes control the lower the risk of diabetic retinopathy. As progression of the disease can be reduced by proper treatment, the patients with diabetes require regular ophthalmological visits. A drug emerged (ranibizumab) suitable for treatment of macula oedema a variant of diabetic retinopathy.[Error: Macro 'ref' doesn't exist]

Pathogenesis

There is no explanation for the great difference in suceptibility to diabetic retinopathy. But there are still ongoing invertigations correlating retinopathy to genetic polymorphisms.

Systematic

Diabetes mellitus
Diabetic nephropathy
Diabetic retinopathy
PON1
VEGFA
Gestational diabetes mellitus
Hereditary susceptibility to diabetes
Insulin resistance
MODY diabetes
Mitochondrial diabetes
Neonatal diabetes mellitus
Noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus 1
Pancreatogenic diabetes
Severe obesity and type 2 diabetes
Susceptibility to type 1 diabetes 01

References:

1.

Kao YL et al. (1998) A variant of paraoxonase (PON1) gene is associated with diabetic retinopathy in IDDM.

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2.

Bahnsen U et al. (1992) A missense mutation in the vasopressin-neurophysin precursor gene cosegregates with human autosomal dominant neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus.

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3.

Talbot C et al. (1994) Protection against Alzheimer's disease with apoE epsilon 2.

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4.

Corder EH et al. (1994) Protective effect of apolipoprotein E type 2 allele for late onset Alzheimer disease.

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5.

Wikipedia article

Wikipedia EN (Vasopressin) external link
Update: Aug. 14, 2020
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