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Urea cycle disorders

Urea cycle disorders (UCD) is a group of diseases with impaired urea synthesis. An accumulation of ammonia ensues. Because of ammonia's neurotoxicity, neurological symptoms and cognitive disorders are observed in these patients. Life-threatening metabolic decompensations may occur if undetected or no properly treated.

Epidemiology

The prevalence of inborn errors of urea metabolism is estimated 1:8,200-39,000.[Error: Macro 'ref' doesn't exist]

Pathogenesis

The urea cycle is a metabolic process by which ammonia, the end product of protein catabolism, is converted into a less toxic substance, urea, that can easily eliminated by the kidneys. Dysfunction of this cycle results in ammonia accumulation and depending on the defect some intermediates may accumulate too. Based on these metabolites early laboratory diagnosis is possible.

The picture below shows the urea cycle with all the enzymes (red oval) and transporters (green box) involved.

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Urea cycle in a liver cell

Systematic

Hereditary metabolic diseases
Coenzyme Q10 deficiency
Congenital disorder of glycosylation
Disorders of cobalamin metabolism
Disorders of iron metabolism
Disorders of urate metabolism
Disturbances in phosphate metabolism
Disturbances of glucose metabolism
Food intolerance
Genetic hyperbilirubinemia
Glycolipidosis
HADH deficiency
Hereditary disorders protein metabolism
Hereditary lipid disorders
Hypercatabolic hypoproteinemia
Hyperzincemia and hypercalprotectinemia
Hypomagnesemia
Hypomethylation syndrome
Lysosomal storage disease
MELAS syndrome
Methionine adenosyltransferase deficiency
Methylmalonic aciduria
Urea cycle disorders
Argininosuccinic aciduria
ASL
Citrullinemia
Citrullinemia type 1
ASS1
Citrullinemia type 2
SLC25A13
Citrullinemia type 2
SLC25A13
Hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinuria syndrome
SLC25A15
Ornithine aminotransferase deficiency
OAT
Ornithine carbamoyltransferase deficiency
OTC

References:

1.

Keskinen P et al. (2008) Hereditary urea cycle diseases in Finland.

external link
2.

Brusilow SW et al. (1996) Urea cycle disorders: diagnosis, pathophysiology, and therapy.

external link
3.

Wikipedia article

Wikipedia EN (Urea_cycle) external link
Update: Aug. 14, 2020
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